A Business Europe, principal confederação patronal europeia, apresentou recentemente um conjunto de propostas para melhoria do ambiente de negócios e da competitividade das empresas europeias que sistematizou num documento designado por "A call for action to boost competitiveness and create regulatory breathing space". Esta tomada de posição da Business Europe pretende alertar os "policy makers on European, national and regional levels to take urgent action in 2023 to provide regulatory breathing space for business and boost competitiveness".
Blogue de Notas - Rui Paulo Almas
Tendências, estratégias e negócios em mercados internacionais. Globalização, comércio e investimento internacional. Desenvolvimento e cooperação internacional. E outras coisas mais.
domingo, 23 de abril de 2023
domingo, 19 de março de 2023
National Bank of Belgium: Export entry and network interactions: Evidence from the Belgian production network
O Banco Nacional da Bélgica acaba de lançar um estudo da autoria de Emmanuel Dhyne, Philipp Ludwig and Hylke Vandenbussche, designado "Export entry and network interactions: Evidence from the Belgian production network", que destaca a importância das redes ("networks) na atividade das empresas exportadoras, sobretudo ao nível das pequenas e médias empresas, e na seleção nos modos de entrada em mercados internacionais:
"Despite continued trade liberalization only 4-5% of firms export products to foreign markets. This low rate of export participation reflects the immense challenges exporters face when trying to access foreign markets. Complying with customs procedures and tailoring products to local demand creates large up-front costs which act as an entry barrier and prevent most firms from becoming exporters. A vast literature in international trade has therefore singled out firm productivity as the key determinant to understand low export participation, since only the most efficient firms are able to take on high entry costs while remaining profitable in foreign markets.
This perspective, however, ignores that firms do not operate in isolation but are constantly interacting through their domestic production network. These network interactions provide a potentially powerful source of information about foreign markets as they connect domestic firms to experienced exporters which are already present in foreign markets. Signals travelling along these linkages could therefore inform firms about foreign market conditions, lower the cost burden typically associated with market access and turn the network itself into a key determinant of export participation. Becoming an exporter might therefore not only be the result of highly efficient production capabilities, but also the result of suitable network linkages.(...)
Our results indicate that firm networks are an important determinant of export participation. (...)
These findings have several implications for researchers and policy makers alike. First, they emphasize that determinants of export participation are both generated within and outside of the firm. Foreign market entry evidently both depends on firms’ efficiency as well as the value of their connections. (...) Second, our results suggest that leveraging existing network linkages presents a potentially powerful tool for policy makers to promote export participation. This is especially true for SMEs which stand to gain most from a network-centered approach."
sábado, 28 de janeiro de 2023
sexta-feira, 13 de janeiro de 2023
The Economist, 12 de janeiro de 2023
sábado, 31 de dezembro de 2022
WIIW - Economic and Social Impacts of FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe
"This study (Economic and Social Impacts of FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe by Doris Hanzl-Weiss and Branimir Jovanović from The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies) assesses the economic and social impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) in 17 economies in Central, East and Southeast Europe (CESEE). More precisely, we investigate how different FDI inflows have affected various economic and social indicators, such as GDP growth, labour market outcomes, and poverty and inequality, for the period since the fall of communism until 2020. (…)
During the past three decades, the economies of Central, East and Southeast Europe (CESEE) have been experiencing strong inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI). Between 1993 and 2020 the world as a whole has been receiving FDI inflows of around 2.5% of global GDP, while foreign investment in CESEE has averaged 4.4% of GDP. Most of these inflows into CESEE – around 60% of the total – have been coming from the nearby EU15 countries. Western European companies entered the attractive CESEE economies to ensure their presence in the new fast-growing markets, as well as to benefit from the lower production costs there. (…)
We find that FDI inflows have had, in general, a positive effect on economic growth in CESEE, and that this effect has been particularly strong for German and Austrian FDI. For total FDI, higher inflows of 1 percentage point (pp) of GDP are associated with 0.19 pp higher GDP growth. For FDI from Germany and Austria, this effect is five times higher – FDI inflows of 1 pp of GDP have led to 0.9 pp higher GDP growth. The positive GDP effects have come from the higher consumption and exports that the FDI has induced. FDI inflows have also reduced unemployment and increased wages, but have had no effects on labour productivity. Total FDI has had only limited effects on inequality and poverty, but FDI from Germany and Austria has been found to reduce both inequality and poverty, likely because they have benefitted mainly lower-income persons. There are differences in the effects of the different types of FDI, with reinvested earnings and equity capital having in general more beneficial effects than intra-company loans. Also, FDI in different sectors of the economy has had different effects, with inflows to the secondary and tertiary sectors having greater effects than inflows to the primary sector.
The policy implications of these results are that CESEE economies should not give up on their efforts to attract more FDI, but also that their endeavours should be more targeted, focusing on investments that have greater economic and social impacts. Moreover, foreign investment should not be criticised for the perhaps unsatisfactory economic and social performances of the economies from this region. Instead, the reasons for this should be sought in domestic factors and in the modest growth of the European Union during the past two decades."
sexta-feira, 23 de dezembro de 2022
Boas Festas para todos os leitores deste blogue - "A gente vai continuar"
Jorge Palma - " A gente vai continuar"
sábado, 3 de dezembro de 2022
Livro " Os rios não sobem montanhas", de José Manuel de Braga Dias
José Manuel de Braga Dias nasceu em Vila Franca do Campo, Açores. É licenciado em Ciências Sociais e Política Ultramarina pelo ISCSP/Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. É meu amigo e foi meu colega no ICEP - Instituto do Comércio Externo de Portugal onde exerceu diversas funções em Portugal e foi Delegado deste Instituto no Brasil, Venezuela e Angola, entre 1982 e 1996.
sábado, 26 de novembro de 2022
Países Baixos - 40% dos estudantes universitários a frequentarem o 1º ano são estrangeiros (2021/22)
sábado, 29 de outubro de 2022
BusinessEurope: EU-China relations - Engaging with a systemic rival
A BusinessEurope, principal confederação patronal europeia, publicou recentemente um novo "paper" dedicado ao tema das relações União Europeia-China. Veja abaixo as principais conclusões deste documento:
- i) "EU-China relations have faced considerable challenges in recent times. On the one hand, our trade and investment relations remain characterised by significant asymmetries, including a lack of reciprocity in market access and an unlevel playing field in some sectors. Therefore, the recommendations that BusinessEurope set out in its 2020 publication “The EU and China: addressing the systemic challenge” remain relevant today. With the increased politicisation of the Chinese business environment, the situation has become even more challenging for European companies in some areas, exacerbated by the lack of international mobility with China since February 2020. On the other hand, new risk factors have emerged such as China’s increased assertiveness and the supply chain disruptions resulting from China’s zero-COVID policy. It is therefore crucial for European companies to thoroughly assess the short- and long-term risks deriving from any overreliance and exposure to the Chinese market and take mitigating measures accordingly. At the same time, China is and will remain a major market for European companies.
- ii) Despite the challenging state of EU-China relations, the EU should keep in mind that China remains a necessary cooperation partner in certain areas – particularly where multilateral solutions are needed – besides being a competitor and a systemic rival. Our economies are strongly interdependent, and we face many common global challenges that need collective solutions. Therefore, the EU should keep engaging with China in areas of interest with the aim of creating conditions for a constructive and balanced cooperation. However, this cooperation will only be possible if there is political willingness and commitment on both sides.
- iii) Addressing climate change and its consequences is one of the biggest challenges of our time. The European Union is at the forefront of the global fight against climate change and European business is committed to achieving a climate-neutral economy by mid-century. However, the fight against climate change can only be successful with the full mobilisation of all countries, and especially China. European business thus calls for more cooperation between the EU and China on policies to tackle the climate crisis whilst ensuring a level playing field for industry, where costs are shared.
- iv) Standardisation is an essential tool to facilitate trade and interoperability, but it can also be used to erect barriers to international economic exchanges. Both the EU and China have an interest in avoiding a decoupling in this field, which would lead to market fragmentation and increased costs for research and development, unnecessary trade barriers and, potentially, unfair competition. The EU needs to work with like-minded partners and China to boost international standard-setting and the adoption of international standards to avoid such an outcome. Moreover, regulatory dialogue could play an important role in helping prevent trade barriers for EU exporters and encouraging regulatory convergence."